Unleavened dough Unleavened dough is one of the varieties of dough known to mankind almost from the same time when flour appeared [1]. The simplest recipe included ingredients such as water and flour. And at the present time, various popular bakery products are made from such a blank, for example, Jewish matzo [2]. Unleavened dough differs from confectionery in its composition: it also uses salt, eggs, sugar, butter, but in small quantities. In total, they make up about 2-5% of the mass of the finished product, the rest is a liquid base and flour. In addition, yeast is most often used in pastry dough to obtain the effect of fluffiness and airiness. The unleavened version does not involve the use of yeast [3].

This culinary preparation is very popular due to its simplicity of preparation [4]. There are no special and expensive ingredients in it, and the cooking process does not require additional skills such as the ability to knead dough or put the dough to proof.

  • Types of unleavened dough, their features
  • Calorie content of the product, its vitamin and mineral composition
  • Cooking features
  • Recipes for various types of unleavened dough
  • The benefits and harms of the product, use in cooking

The most famous and even cult dish from the classic unleavened dough is Jewish matzah [5]. In the Jewish faith and culture, thin cakes made from water and flour are considered "poor bread", that is, a substitute for ordinary bread. The fact is that, traditionally, during the Passover holiday, Jews are prohibited from eating pastries, cakes and yeast bread. The rabbis point out that the whole process of making the right matzo should not take longer than 18 minutes, otherwise the fermentation process begins in the mixture [6].

Among the Azerbaijani people, a similar place of honor among baked goods is occupied by lavash or, as they call it, “simple bread”. This product is used in many recipes of folk cuisine and has a special, unique taste [7]. The cake is no more than 5 millimeters thick and is made from wheat flour and water with the addition of old dough (sourdough) and a small amount of salt. In total, there are about 30 types of traditional Azerbaijani lavash, which are cooked in a special oven on hot stones or dried under the influence of sunlight.

You can cook puff, shortcrust, butter or a simple version of unleavened dough, so this semi-finished product is used for pies, pizza, cookies, bread, tortillas, dumplings and dumplings, pies, lavash and other flour products.

Types of unleavened dough, their features

The simplest option is classic. The one that has come down to modern times from the most ancient culinary experts. For it, only water, salt and flour are used, sometimes adding vegetable oil. It is used to make dumplings, dumplings, lean cakes, lavash, matzo, pizza cakes.

 Ingredients for unleavened dough Another type of flour semi-finished product is butter. In this case, the recipe may include milk, kefir, eggs, sour cream, soda [8]. These ingredients are designed to enhance the taste of the finished product and make it more sophisticated. This is the so-called muffin. Dumplings are not made from butter dough, baked goods are much tastier from it: cheesecakes, pies, baked and fried pies with fish, meat or fruits. For aroma, you can add cinnamon, cloves, sesame seeds, zest, vanillin to it.

Shortbread or crumbly unleavened dough is also prepared with the addition of baking, sometimes with baking powder. It is used to bake open quiche pies, biscuits and cake bases.

For various puff pies and strudel, puff pastry is prepared - a product that requires some skills in the cooking process, but the result pays for the effort. Soft baked goods with airy layers are slightly crispy and very tender.

For chebureks, fresh choux pastry is prepared with the addition of hot water instead of cold. It is distinguished by its elasticity and strength.

Calorie content of the product, its vitamin and mineral composition

100 g of unleavened dough contains 225.83 kcal [9], [10]. The ratio of proteins, fats and carbohydrates in grams is 9.04 / 3.02 / 40.68 per 100 g of product.
Below is a table of the vitamin and mineral composition of the product [11].

Vitamin A (retinol) 100 mcg
Vitamin B1 (thiamin) 0.09 mg
Vitamin B2 (riboflavin) 0.06 mg
Vitamin B4 30.4 mg
Vitamin B5 0.2 mg
Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) 0.1 mg
Vitamin B9 (folic acid) 14.5 mcg
Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) 0.07 mcg
Vitamin E 6,7 mg
Potassium 71.2 mg
Calcium 17.3 mg
Silicon 2.1 mg
Magnesium 9.1 mg
Sodium 50.2 mg
Sulfur 46.3 mg
Phosphorus 53.2 mg
Chlorine 603.6 mg
Iron 0.7 mg
Iodine 1 μg

Data may vary slightly. It depends on what ingredients are used in the recipe.

Cooking features

 Unleavened dough cake If the dough is to be used for baking cakes or pies, it should be fluffy and fluffy, soft and slightly springy. In this case, baking powder is added to the recipe - ready-made store mixes or homemade products that are at hand. Most often, this is regular soda. It is enough to add it in a small amount, otherwise the finished product will acquire an unpleasant smell and taste, it will become greenish.

Homemade baking powder is prepared with a median of 12 teaspoons of flour, 5 teaspoons of baking soda, and 3 teaspoons of citric acid. This mixture is added to the flour before kneading the dough.

If you use vinegar slaked soda, add this mixture immediately to the dough while it foams.

For recipes based on fermented milk products, baking soda or baking powder is initially mixed with them.

Some housewives advise adding, in addition to slaked soda, vodka (it is mixed with salt, sugar and eggs). The combination of baking soda and alcohol gives a crumbly airy dough.

Alcoholic drinks are sometimes added to baked goods for flavor and color. Cognac, whiskey, liqueurs also have disintegrating properties.

The finished dough is always elastic and dense. It should stretch well, not tear when rolling and not stick to your hands.

Recipes for various types of unleavened dough

The simplest, classic version does not contain any special ingredients:

  • 500 g flour;
  • a pinch of salt;
  • water (see quantity as required).

The flour is sieved twice so that no lumps remain in it. Salt is added to it, a slide is formed from the mixture, and a depression is made in the middle. Warm boiled water is slowly and gradually poured into it. In parallel, the mixture is started to knead, adding water until the product becomes thick and steep. Then it is kneaded to a state of homogeneity and elasticity. This usually takes less than 4-5 minutes. The product is wrapped in cellophane or plastic wrap and placed in the refrigerator for 20 minutes. This dough can be used for dumplings or closed pie with filling.

Unleavened dough with kefir:

  • 500 g of kefir (fat content 3.2 or 5%);
  • 2 eggs;
  • 2 tablespoons of vegetable oil;
  • salt to taste;
  • half a teaspoon of baking soda;
  • flour - how much the dough will take.

 Flour All ingredients except flour are quickly and vigorously mixed in a bowl. Next, flour is poured and the dough is kneaded by hand until elastic. There should be no lumps in the product, so the flour can first be sieved through a sieve. The result is about 1 kilogram of the workpiece. It can be used for pies or pasties. The product can be stored in the refrigerator, wrapped in plastic wrap, no more than three days. There is a similar recipe for sour cream. Instead of vegetable oil, it is suggested to use butter in it.

A more complex technique of kneading and especially rolling in unleavened puff pastry. However, the result is so airy and crunchy that it's worth trying. This requires:

  • 500 g flour;
  • 500 g butter;
  • 1-2 glasses of cold water (how much the dough will take);
  • 2 tablespoons of vinegar;
  • salt - on the tip of a knife;
  • 1 egg or 50 g of white wine.

Basic cooking rules:

  • Only the highest grade flour is used. It is better to sift it before the cooking process, in addition, the flour should not be damp.
  • Rinse the butter under cold water and remove moisture with paper towels, then wrinkle it with your hands.
  • It is better to knead the product in the cold on a perfectly flat surface, and this must be done quickly.
  • Oil is taken in a ratio of 1/1 to the weight of mixed water and flour.
  • Flour is sifted onto a clean, flat surface with a slide, a hole is made in the middle. The rest of the ingredients are mixed into it, and until the dough begins to harden, it is very quickly kneaded until smooth. Several cuts 5 mm deep are made on the surface of the dough and set aside for 10-15 minutes. It is necessary to prepare the butter - it is washed and kneaded in such a way that it has the same consistency as the dough.

    The hardest part is rolling out the workpiece correctly. Initially, a cake about 5 mm thick is rolled out of it in the shape of a rectangle. A layer of oil is laid on top of the rectangle in a layer. Next, the dough with butter is folded in four, with opposite edges to each other. The resulting triangle is carefully rolled out to a thickness of 1 cm. Then the dough is again folded four times so that the opposite edges come together. The workpiece to be processed is covered with a damp cloth and put into the refrigerator for 20 minutes.

     Puff pastry After that, another 2-3 such rolls are needed, followed by cooling, while the latter occurs 10 minutes before baking.

    In this case, it is necessary to carefully ensure that the dough does not stick to the rolling pin or to the surface, otherwise the pieces on them may tear the layers of the dough being rolled.

    After the product from puff unleavened dough is in the oven, for the first 10-12 minutes it cannot be opened, otherwise the product will settle.

    In order to save time on kneading the product, a simple or rich version of the dough can be prepared in a bread maker. All the usual ingredients are used for this, and any bread maker with a dough kneading mode will do.

    The benefits and harms of the product, use in cooking

    Unleavened dough has a slightly lower calorie content than yeast dough. At the same time, it is rich in carbohydrates and gives a feeling of satiety for a long time. The use of flour products in limited quantities is beneficial for the body, as it gives a supply of energy necessary for the functioning of the body. The protein contained in the product is important for muscle tissue.

    The complex of useful substances in the composition of unleavened dough helps to increase immunity, stimulate mental activity, and improve blood clotting. Due to the vitamin composition contained in the product, its use has a positive effect on the condition of the skin, nails, hair and eyes. Fiber, which is rich in some types of dough, has a beneficial effect on bowel function.

    With all the known beneficial properties, the dough is a high-calorie product that helps to increase body fat. Eating flour products, combined with a sedentary lifestyle and lack of exercise, can lead to obesity and hateful folds around the waist.

    If there is an individual intolerance to the components of the test, it must be excluded from the diet.

    Culinary experts use unleavened dough as a basis for dishes of varying complexity - from lean cakes to pies and strudel. It is used to make aromatic cheesecakes, burgers, baked and fried pies, shortbreads, rolls, pita bread, dumplings and dumplings, pasties, pizza, lasagne, cookies, bagels, tarts and pies, as well as decorations for culinary products and cakes.

    The dough is also prepared in stock, while it is stored in cling film in the freezer, and it will not lose its taste and culinary properties within 2-3 weeks.

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    Unleavened dough is a product that is prepared using a variety of technologies and recipes. In terms of its culinary properties and advantages, it is not inferior to confectionery yeast dough, but at the same time it is more useful and less nutritious. It can be prepared from various types of flour, due to which the finished product will have special properties and taste. Choux, puff, pastry and shortbread unleavened dough does not limit culinary experts at all - it is used for a variety of complex dishes such as dumplings, pizza, dumplings, and pastries. Of course, you need to understand that it will be very difficult to achieve such a rise as in yeast dough, however, special leavening agents can give airiness and looseness to unleavened dough products, the main thing is not to overdo it with flour. From a densely mixed blank, made according to a classic recipe, you can sculpt decorations for cakes and pies - it holds its shape perfectly and does not blur when baked. Vegetarians and fasting people can find a recipe for the classic unleavened dough without animal products, and they can also indulge in pies, veggie pizza or delicious biscuits.


    Things to know (Q&A)

    What is unleavened bread made of?

    It is a poor bread made only with flour and water , without salt or yeast and therefore without leavening; it is also very good for those suffering from yeast intolerances. It looks like a crunchy pastry with a round or square shape and a neutral flavor, and it can combined with sweet or savory dishes.

    What's the difference between leavened and unleavened bread?

    Leavened bread contains baking yeast, baking powder or baking soda – ingredients that cause the dough to bubble and rise and create a light, airy product. Unleavened bread is a flatbread, often resembling a cracker. Other than the leavening agent, the ingredients in the two kinds of bread are similar .

    What are the three types of dough?

    Types of dough

    • Brioche - Flour, eggs and a large quantity of butter.
    • Challah - egg dough.
    • Crêpe.
    • Focaccia - for Italian leavened flat bread.
    • Pasta dough - for making noodles, ravioli, etc.
    • Pizza Dough.
    • Rolled-In Dough - for croissants and Danish pastries.
    • Sourdough - made from a cultured starter.

    Is pita bread unleavened bread?

    Many flatbreads are unleavened , although some are leavened, such as pizza and pita bread. Flatbreads range from below one millimeter to a few centimeters thick so that they can be easily eaten without being sliced.

    What breads are unleavened?

    Varieties of unleavened bread

    • Matzo – Jewish flat bread.
    • Lavash (usually leavened but occasionally unleavened) – Armenian flat bread inscribed on the UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage Lists.
    • Tortilla – Mesoamerican/Mexican flat bread.
    • Roti – Indian flat breads including Chapati, Dalpuri, and variants.

    What is the difference between regular bread and unleavened bread?

    Leavened bread contains baking yeast, baking powder or baking soda – ingredients that cause the dough to bubble and rise and create a light, airy product. Unleavened bread is a flatbread, often resembling a cracker.

    Is it healthy to eat unleavened bread?

    Rich in B Vitamins

    Whole-grain unleavened breads can help you meet your daily B vitamin needs, including small amounts of riboflavin, pantothenic acid, niacin, folate, vitamin B-6 and thiamin. Each B vitamin has its own specific role in your body, but they also work to help you get energy from the food you eat.

    Why is communion bread unleavened?

    Theologically and spiritually, yeast, or leaven in the New Testament, is often equated with sin, impurity and hypocrisy (see Mt 16:6; Lk 12:1). And thus unleavened bread comes to symbolize sincerity, purity and integrity

    What is the difference between leaven and unleavened bread in the Bible?

    The difference between leavened and unleavened bread is found in the word itself — leaven . Leaven is what is placed in bread dough to make the bread rise. ... The Jews were commanded to eat unleavened bread in the observation of the Passover and feast of unleavened bread (Exodus 12:1–15).

    Why is leavened bread forbidden during Passover?

    Leavened and fermented grain products are prohibited to commemorate our freedom from Egyptian slavery . When the Jews escaped Egypt (led by Moses), they didn't have time to let their breads rise before going into the desert. Because of this, any type of leavened bread or bread product is prohibited during Passover.

    Which is better for you leavened or unleavened bread?

    There are no major differences in eating leavened or unleavened bread. ... Matza is slightly higher in protein, carbohydrate and calories than leavened bread because it is dry, with about a gram of water per ounce. In contrast, white bread contains 8 to 10 grams of water per ounc

    What are the types of dough?

    Traditionally, there are two categories: leavened and unleavened doughs . Leavened Dough Leavened dough is dough that has risen to its final form. Leavened dough achieves this rising through fermentation or the addition of leaveners (like baking soda or baking powder).

    What are the three types of yeast dough?

    There are three main types of commercially produced baker's yeast: active dry, instant, and fresh . All of them will work to leaven doughs in any given yeasted baking recipe, but each has slightly different properties, and, for the more discerning palate, varying flavor

    Is pita bread like unleavened bread?

    Are pitas unleavened bread? Yes , pitas are a type of unleavened bread.

    What kind of bread is unleavened?

    Unleavened bread is bread that is made with nothing in it to make it rise: that is, no leavening, be it a chemical leavener, a yeast or a starter dough. Well-known examples are chapati, matzo and Mexican tortillas . Not all flat breads, however, are necessarily unleavene

    Does pita bread have yeast in them?

    Cook in Skillet or Bake in Oven

    These are hard to get when baking them in the oven. To cook in a skillet: Heat a large skillet over medium heat. Add 2-3 pita bread doughs in a single layer, making sure they do not overla

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